Several attempts have been made to debunk the Nazca mummies, with the most prominent being the analysis conducted by Flavio Estrada for the Peruvian Ministry of Culture, which claimed that the mummies were fabricated using modified animal parts and fake skin. Other debunking efforts include the discovery of replica figurines at Lima airport, questions surrounding the involvement of Jaime Maussan, and anatomical anomalies such as the placement of the phalanges. However, proponents of the mummies' authenticity argue that these debunking attempts are flawed, biased, or focus on incorrect specimens, and maintain that the medical evidence, including radiological analyses, supports the genuine nature of the remains.

Flavio Estrada Edit

The authenticity of the Peruvian mummies has been a subject of controversy, with arguments against their legitimacy primarily stemming from the analysis conducted by Flavio Estrada for the Peruvian Ministry of Culture. Until recently, the details of his analysis were not fully disclosed due to a lawsuit that made his report public. Estrada's main assertions were that the heads of the small mummies were constructed from modified llama skulls and that the bodies were an amalgamation of animal parts held together with glue and covered in a fake skin resembling paper mache.

However, the UNICA team directly refutes the claim that the mummies' skulls are derived from llamas, highlighting key differences between the two during the second Mexican hearing. Estrada's second argument, which suggests that the bodies were fabricated, is based on his analysis of a different body that is likely a ritual doll made from various animal parts. The validity of extrapolating these findings to other mummies that bear only superficial similarities, despite contradictory evidence from x-ray and CT scans, is questionable.

It is possible that Estrada's conclusions are influenced by his own disbelief and bias rather than being the result of an organized coverup. His report dedicates significant effort to discrediting UFO and alien research in general, suggesting that he may belong to the group of individuals who do not believe in the possibility of extraterrestrial or non-human intelligent life and seek facts to support their beliefs.

Lima Airport Edit

In early 2024, two figurines resembling mummified bodies dressed in traditional Andean attire were discovered in a cardboard box at the DHL courier offices in Lima airport. Upon examination, Peruvian officials determined that the objects were crafted using a combination of materials, including paper, glue, metal, and bones from both human and animal sources. However, these specimens were created by an individual who intended to sell them as souvenirs in Mexico. The confiscated dolls were replicas of the original Nazca mummies.

Jaime Maussan Edit

Other counterclaims focus on Jaime Maussan's history of presenting fabricated bodies, which can be seen as an ad hominem attack that disregards the available medical data. While Maussan's credibility may be questionable, the evidence should be evaluated independently of his involvement.

Upside Down Phalanges Edit

Another common counterclaim is that "the hands are wrong" or "the bones don't make sense." However, some of these videos focus on the wrong samples, such as disembodied hands. When the correct specimens are examined, the debunkers are accurate in stating that the bones are unusual and unlike anything previously encountered, but they do not exhibit signs of fabrication. Radiologist Dr. Mary Jesse from the University of Colorado Hospital has provided insight into her thought process regarding the unique anatomy of the mummies, with further details presented during the second Mexican hearing.

Llama Skull Edit

  • José de la Cruz Ríos López does not believe skull is a llama.
  • Not enough volume in llama skull?
  • No signs of cutting.